1. திலகருக்கு கடிதம்
THE BALA BHARATA
A monthly organ of
Indian National Regeneration
Annual Subscription Re. 1-8-0 only
The “Bala bharata” Office
Dated, 29th May 1908
I have received a letter from Pandit Krishnavarma asking us to open a Hindi class in Madras, under the auspices of the Chennai Jana Sangham. We have already opened a small class. I hope it will bel faily well-attended in due course of time. I shall report its progress. latter on.
We have decided to hold a Naitonal Provincial Conference in Madras, on the lines marked out in the Calcutta Congress. What about the next Congress? What has become of our Nationalist Committee? Our Secretary Mr.Chidambaram is just now you know where. Please Mr.Kelkar to correspond with our Sangham about the matter.
மேற்கண்ட கடிதத்தின் தமிழாக்கம்
இந்திய தேசியப் புனருத்தாரண
ஆண்டுச்சந்தா ரூ 1-8-0 மட்டும்
|“பால பாரதா” ஆபீஸ்|
தேதி 29 மே 1908
ஸ்ரீ மான் பி.ஜி.திலக் அவர்களுக்கு,
சென்னை ஜன சங்க ஆதரவில் சென்னையில் ஒரு ஹிந்தி வகுப்பு துவக்குமாறு கேட்டுக்கொண்டு ஒரு கடிதம் பண்டித கிருஷ்ண வர்மாவிடமிருந்து எனக்கு வந்துள்ளது. நாங்கள் ஏற்கெனவே ஒரு சிறிய வகுப்பு துவங்கியுள்ளோம். போகப் போக அதில் நிறையப் பேர் கலந்துகொள்வார்கள் என்று நம்புகிறேன். அதனுடைய முன்னேற்றம் பற்றிப் பின்னர் தெரிவிக்கிறேன்.
கல்கத்தா காங்கிரஸில வகுத்த முறைப்படி சென்னையில் ஒரு தேசிய மாகாண மாநாடு நடத்த நாங்கள் முடிவு செய்துள்ளோம். அடுத்த காங்கிரஸ் மகாசபைக் கூட்ட விஷயம் என்ன ஆயிற்று? நமது தேசியக் கமிட்டி என்ன ஆயிற்று? எங்கள் செயலாளர் ஸ்ரீ சிதம்பரம் இப்போது எங்கே இருக்கிறார் என்பதை நீங்கள் அறிவீர்கள். இந்த விஷயம் சம்பந்தமாக எங்கள் சங்கத்துடன் கடிதத் தொடர்பு கொள்ளும்படி ஸ்ரீ கேல்கரிடம் கூறுங்கள்.
2. To the Editor of New India– 1
I do not blame the Madras “Council of Indian Education “ for their anxiety to have Prof. Geddes’ views on the subject of employing Indian languages as the media of instruction in Indian schools. For I am aware that men’s thoughts are ordinarily moulded by their environments. Nor do I blame the good and learned Prof. Geddes for his innocent comparison of the revival of Indian languages with the Gaelic revival in Wales and in Ireland. I do not know if Gaelic has any extensive and living literature. But I feel it is high time to remind all parties concerned in discussions like this, that most of the Indian languages have great, historic and livings literatures. Of course their luster has been slightly dimmed by economic conditions during these latter days.
The English – educated minority in this country can be pardoned for being frightfully ignorant of the higher phases of our national literatures: but they will do well to drop that annoying attitude of patronage and condescension when writing and talking about or languages. The Tamil language, for instance, has living philosophical and poetical literature that is far grander, to my mind, than that of the “vernacular” or England.
For the matter of that, I do not think that any modern vernacular of Europe can boast of works like the Kural of Valluvar, the Ramayana of Kamban and Silappadhikaram (Anklet Epic) of Ilango. And it may not be irrelevant to add that I have read and appreciated the exquisite beauties of Shelley and of Victor Hugo in the original English and French “vernaculars” and of Goethe in English translations.
– New India (23.02.1915)
3. To the Editor of New India – 2
Home and War
I am aware that your journal is guided by the excellent principle, that no patriot must do anything or say anything, during war-time, which will embarrass the Government or make their work in any way difficult.
And, in craving the indulgence of your columns for the discussion of one or two pressing domestic reforms, I hope, you will do me the justice of remembering that I was one of the earliest in the country to realize and enunciate the aforesaid principle in clear terms.
Take the instance of patriotic family, a big joint family – like the ones that were familiar in our country till a few decades ago. War comes and the family sends its finest fellows to the front. Of course, the hearts of those who remain are full of the mingled feelings of pride and satisfaction, pain and apprehension. To make a long story short, it is not conceivable that any one in such a home will say or do anything which will aggravate the difficulty of the patriarch’s work in governing the homestead or managing its affairs. But, all the same, people will eat and drink and sleep as usual. The cattle would be cared for, repairs would be effected and transactions made just as in other times.
Even so should patriots regard the question of urgent domestic reforms while the State is at war. Suggestions, which, while being absolutely beneficial to the well-being of the State, may still require the mending of certain administrative details, or the adoption of certain new administrative principles, must be eagerly welcomed by the State, especially when the common danger has evoked mutual sacrifices that ought to have definitely cleared all mists of suspicion and distrust.
India’s actual sacrifices in the cause of this war, grand and thrilling as they have been, are nothing before the further sacrifices she is prepared to make, if necessity should arise, for the defense of the Imperial household where she has so far been the eldest and most dutiful, but not the favorites, daughter-in-law. India, with her intense passion for peace, born of the series of war-pests which had been her lot, almost uninterruptedly, for long centuries together, will naturally be ready to sacrifice herself most for assuring the peace of the Empire against foreign enemies.
If any Englishman in India has doubts about her capacity for sacrifice or her devotion to the common cause let him refer to Lord Crewe and get his doubts cleared.
But the smart ones of the world think now-a-days that patience and mildness are qualities of the weak and the degraded, that gentleness and forgiveness are barbarian virtues. In former ages, men though otherwise. Then it was violence and pride, insensibility and rudeness, aggressiveness and offence that men counted as barbarians qualities.
India – So far as it is permitted for me to read her mind feels convinced that certain reforms are urgent and indispensable for the very continuance of her existence.
Firstly, she must live. And life, according to the Indian conceptions has a fourfold object: Dharma, Artha, Kama, Moksha – Duty, Acquisition, Enjoyment and Liberation. Unless these four things be achieved in full measure, an individual life would be imperfect, while a national existence in such a case, would be undivine, contemptible, futile. But duty and wealth, enjoyment and liberation, will be possible only where knowledge is allowed full scope to develop itself. Our first need, then is education.
We want free, universal, primary education, of course under Indian control. Safeguards you may put in, plenty of them. But give us light. Let us teach ourselves toread and write – let us have decent notions of geography and arithmetic. But it costs a lot – Does it? Don’t we pay taxes? And we shall pay more. India will never grudge money spent for knowledge.
Secondly, we come to police reform. What can the Government mean by constantly increasingly the number and prospects of the C.I.D. force in the country? If we go on manufacturing spies more and more and ever more, where will they find work? And we all know that some one finds some mischief still for idle had to do. What is worse, the idea is certainly abroad among the lower ranks of the Police that some of the higher officials will be much better pleased with a policeman for detecting a new swadeshi than, say, for discovering a gold mine! It is all the fault of that love of romance, inherent in human nature. If we have no real enemies whose very existence may be full of dark threats to our safety, well, we can create them by imagination. If we happen to be rich; we can have paid hirelings to provide us that treat.
Yet another point, which it would not be inopportune to discuss at the present moment, is the encouragement of our industries. I gratefully acknowledge that the Government have recently shown signs that they are alive to their responsibilities in this matter. But naturally we want them to do more.
I have certain suggestions to offer on this subject. But the present article is already too long and I shall revert to this topic in a future letter.
C. Subramania Bharati
4. Letter to The Hindu
There is hope for Madras for she has still some verteran leaders of the caliber of Mr. Subramania Aiyer. Mr. Aiyer is a patriot of the othodox type, midway between the fanatic and the funk. For the last three decades and more this man has been unceasingly thinking and writing about his country, her wrongs and her hopes. The dazzling brilliance of genius Mr. Aiyer certainly has not. The gods have not bestowed on him any of those shining, semi-divine mental gifts. But they have mercifully withheld from his composition the cheap and deceitful flashes so painfully common among us in these latter days – the spurious, multicolored and short-lived flames of the political dilettante and charalatan. He is not a star, nor a meteor, nor ignis fatu us. He is the unfailing sacrificial fire; a modest beacon light over the troubled waters of Indian politics.
The gods have given him plenty of suffering as they give to every mortal on earth. Perhaps the gods decree more suffering to men who wish to help human evolution than to others. But to Mrs. Subramaniya Aiyer they have granted the strength to bear all the burden and heat of the day, never complaining, never despairing. This man can endure, he can therefore build. He can suffer, he can therefore elevate. Unaided he has made Tamil journalism a fact of the world in spite of his very imperfect early training in Tamil literature. Learn, says the Tamil aphorist, while you are yet young.
In Mr. Subramaniya Aiyer’s youth he had wholly neglected his mother tongue like most people in this country who claim to have been “educated” in English schools. But his mature patriotism had to realize later on that for the elevation of the Tamil race the Tamil language would be not only the most rational but the indispensable medium. They win who dare; Mr. Aiyer dared and he has succeeded in establishing a Tamil daily journal which with all its faults is the most useful newspaper in the Tamil country. His whole political gospel can be summed up in these words: “ Praceful but tireless and unceasing effort’. Let us sweat ourselves into Swaraj, he would seem to say.”
The Hindu (December 1914)